What Is a Vet Assistant and What Do Vet Assistants Do?

With the recent explosion of organic pet foods, hand-sewn costumes, and psychiatric medicines for people’s furry, feathered, and scaly companions, it’s clear that pets hold a privileged position in many households. In fact, an annual survey by American Pet Products Association (APPA 2021-2022) found that 70 percent of US households have pets (which equates to 90.5 million homes), up from 56 percent in 1988.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC 2022) has repeatedly emphasized the positive effects of animals on lowering people’s blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and feelings of loneliness. Becoming a veterinary assistant can be a fulfilling option for animal lovers seeking a career with minimal training.

So what is a veterinary assistant? And what do these animal care specialists do? According to O*NET (2022)—a data organization affiliated with the US Department of Labor—vet assistants are on the front lines of animal caretaking, taking on responsibilities such as managing the everyday needs of animals (e.g., feeding, bathing, exercising); restraining animals during examinations and procedures; assisting with non-invasive medical procedures; disinfecting cages and kennels; scheduling medical appointments with pet-owners; sterilizing equipment and surgical rooms; monitoring veterinary patients’ health status (e.g., taking weight or temperature); and educating pet-owners.

These professionals may help veterinary technicians and veterinarians in more advanced capacities such as administering medication, processing laboratory samples, and performing medical tests (e.g., x-rays). Veterinary assistants are typically employed by animal clinics and veterinary hospitals, sometimes working nights, weekends, and holidays to meet the needs of their veterinary patients.

While veterinary technicians and technologists may need state registration, certification, or licensure in addition to a two- to four-year degree prior to seeking employment, veterinary assistants require less formal training.

Read on to discover how to become a veterinary assistant—including interviews with the experts and information on requirements, education, and professional certification—as well as how much money these animal caretakers can make, their projected career outlook, and how they can join related professions.

Requirements to Become a Vet Assistant

To become a veterinary assistant, candidates typically need at least a high school diploma to qualify. O*NET (2022) found that 78 percent of responding veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers have a high school diploma as their highest academic credential.

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA 2022), veterinary assistants support the clinical activities of veterinary technicians and veterinarians by performing clerical work, animal restraint, and daily caretaking of veterinary patients. Although there are some quality training programs in this field, there is no formal credentialing exam for veterinary assistants. On the contrary, many are trained on the job, although the required education and scope of practice for these animal caretaking professionals varies by state.

Georgia, for instance, defines a veterinary assistant as someone with on-the-job training or a year of formal training. Texas, by contrast, has established a state certification process for vet assistants through the Texas Veterinary Medical Association (TVMA). Other states such as New Hampshire and Hawaii specify no state-mandated restrictions on the scope of practice of veterinary assistants.

Overall, for aspiring veterinary assistants, it can be advisable to pursue a formal training program to enhance one’s resume, job candidacy, and salary prospects. The renowned Ohana Pet Hospital in Ventura, California actually prefers vet assistant candidates with an associate degree in veterinary technology (or an equivalent registered veterinary technician [RVT] program). Other typical requirements to join this profession include strong communication skills, compassion, punctuality, basic math skills, and the ability to lift at least 30 lbs.

Steps to Becoming A Vet Assistant

There are varied paths to becoming a veterinary assistant. Some choose to seek employment directly at veterinary clinics and get trained on the job. Enrolling in a training program may be a preferable alternative for those interested in greater responsibilities, opportunities for advancement, and possibly higher pay.

Here is one possible path to becoming a veterinary assistant:

Step 1: Graduate from high school (four years). As mentioned above, a high school diploma is a typical prerequisite to employment in this profession. Aspiring vet assistants are encouraged to excel in courses such as biology which is a prerequisite to some certificate and degree programs. At this stage, students are encouraged to volunteer in local animal hospitals, veterinary clinics, farms, laboratories, and other environments to garner hands-on experience working with animals.

Step 2: Enroll in a veterinary assistant program (one year). According to the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America (NAVTA 2021), there are currently more than 50 programs—including four distance-based options—approved by NAVTA to become an Approved Veterinary Assistant (AVA). Although this credential is not essential for employment, it can enhance one’s job prospects among employers.

Typical application requirements for these programs include having a high school diploma or GED and completing prerequisite courses either before or concurrently with the program (e.g., biology, medical terminology). Here are four exemplary veterinary assistant programs:

School Online? Description
Animal Behavior College (ABC) Santa Clarita, CA Yes

With 11 discrete stages of training in animal restraint, examination room procedures, small animal nursing, and radiology & ultrasound imaging, this program exposes students to the basics of veterinary technology. Additionally, students must complete a local externship at the end of their program to put their newfound abilities to practice. It typically takes one year.

Ashworth College
Norcross, GA

This online veterinary assistant program comprises five units: orientation, office management, veterinary anatomy & pharmacology, small animal nursing, and clinical procedures. The program includes “virtual field trips” to enhance training, in addition to a 120-hour supervised externship.

Front Range Community College
Fort Collins, CO

FRCC offers a variety of on-campus veterinary technician and laboratory animal care programs, including a two-semester certificate for aspiring veterinary assistants. With classes such as veterinary medical terminology, surgical nursing & care, and an internship, this 16.25-credit program gives an introductory overview of veterinary medicine.

Carroll Community College
Westminster, MD

This on-campus veterinary assistant certificate program has core courses in outpatient care, diagnostics & pharmacy, and surgery & anesthesia.

Step 3: Seek professional certification (timeline varies). After completing a qualified NAVTA-approved veterinary assistant program, students receive a code to take the exam for the Approved Veterinary Assistant (AVA) credential. Students enter the code into the VetMedTeam website, which provides a proctor for the 100-question exam. Students have 150 minutes to complete the test once the exam window has been opened and must pass with a score of at least 75 percent.

The AVA credential is valid for two years. Although professional certification is not mandatory, it can indicate a job applicant’s knowledge of veterinary caretaking. As mentioned above, some states provide veterinary assistant certification. For example, the Texas Veterinary Medical Association (TVMA) offers the certified veterinary assistant (CVA) designation. Similarly, the Florida Veterinary Medical Association (FVMA) provides a CVA credential to qualifying vet assistants. Please check with local state boards of veterinary medicine to verify requirements and scope of practice restrictions.

Step 4: Maintain AVA certification (every two years). In order to keep AVA certifications active, vet assistants must complete 10 credits of continuing education (CE). Opportunities for CE include attending classes, conferences, online courses, and onsite seminars.

Career Outlook for Vet Assistants

There’s good news for aspiring veterinary assistants. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2021), openings in this profession are expected to swell 14 percent between 2020 and 2030, a stronger growth projection than what’s anticipated for all occupations during that time period (8 percent). The expected addition of 15,300 positions in this field is enhanced by increasing rates of pet ownership and pet expenditures across the US.

By illustration, the American Pet Products Association (APPA 2021-2022) found that 90.5 million homes had pets and in 2020, an incredible $109.6 billion is expected to be spent on American pets in 2021.

In addition to veterinary assisting, there are several careers that animal lovers can pursue with additional education, training, and professional certification. Here are a few animal healthcare careers for ambitious veterinary assistants to consider.

Become a Laboratory Animal Technician or Technologist

The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) offers three specialized certifications: assistant laboratory animal technician (ALAT), laboratory animal technician (LAT), and laboratory animal technologist (LATG).

Each of the certifications requires a mix of education and experience on-the-job. Candidates with a high school diploma, for instance, can qualify for ALAT certification with one year of laboratory animal science experience, LAT (three years), and LATG (five years). Qualified candidates must pass an exam. Certification is not mandatory to work in this field, but can enhance a person’s candidacy for a job.

Become a Veterinary Technician or Technologist

The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA 2022) distinguishes between vet assistants and vet techs, stating that vet techs typically pursue two to four years of postsecondary education and have a greater scope of practice than vet assistants, giving support to veterinarians during complex surgical procedures and performing laboratory analyses to help diagnose medical conditions.

Technicians generally have associate degrees, whereas technologists have bachelor’s degrees, and both are encouraged to seek out veterinary technology programs accredited by the AVMA. These programs feature courses such as mammalian anatomy & physiology, veterinary pathology, parasitology, animal nursing, diagnostic imaging, and research methods. Following the completion of a qualifying program, prospective vet techs typically take the national Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE), a test administered by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB).

Additionally, depending on the region of practice, vet techs may have to become certified, licensed, or registered by the state. Here is a comprehensive guide to vet tech licensing and renewal by state. These credentials must be maintained with renewal applications and the fulfillment of continuing education (CE) requirements.

Finally, there are various specialties for veterinary technicians and technologists to consider, which can be pursued following the completion of additional coursework, training, experience, and passing an exam. Once a vet tech has fulfilled all credentialing requirements, he or she may qualify as a vet tech specialist (VTS) in dentistry, nutrition, radiology, emergency & critical care, or equine nursing, among others.

For more information, please check out the how to become a VTS page.

Become a Veterinary Technician Anesthesiologist

After becoming a veterinary technician or technologist, a person may seek out opportunities to administer anesthesia. Following the completion of 8,000 supervised working hours in veterinary clinics—75 percent of which (i.e., 6,000 hours) must be used giving anesthesia—a person may qualify for the credentialing exam through the Academy of Veterinary Technician Anesthetists (AVTA).

For more information on how to join this career, please visit the how to become a vet tech anesthetist page.

Become an Animal Psychologist or Behaviorist

This subfield of veterinary science typically requires at least a two-year graduate degree in animal behavior or a related field. The Animal Behavior Society (ABS) provides two levels of certification to qualified candidates who pass an exam: the associate certified applied animal behaviorist (ACAAB) credential for master’s-prepared candidates, and the certified applied animal behaviorist (CAAB) credential for doctoral-prepared candidates.

For more information on this subfield of veterinary medicine, please visit the how to become an animal psychologist page.

Become a Veterinarian

Finally, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), veterinarians must complete a doctor of veterinary medicine (i.e., DVM or VMD)—the terminal degree in the discipline—as well as pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE) and applicable state licensure exams. Additionally, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) recognizes 38 specialties, including surgery, neurology, microbiology, virology, and internal medicine. Please note that advanced certification requirements vary by specialty.

How Much Do Vet Assistants Make?

The salary for veterinary assistants varies by level of experience, region, employer, and even data source. Since this profession requires minimal formal qualifications, the average annual salary is somewhat lower than the average for all occupations ($58,260). By illustration, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS May 2021) found that among 98,970 veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers nationwide, the annual average salary was $31,780—the latest data available as of June 2022.

National annual salary percentiles for vet assistants in 2021 were:

Range Annual Salary
10th Percentile $22,920
25th Percentile $28,200
50th Percentile (Median) $29,780
75th Percentile $36,520
90th Percentile $38,860

Based on the annual mean wage salary, the following five states offer the highest salaries to vet assistants:

State Number of Jobs Annual mean wage
United States 98,970 $31,780
Maine 820 $40,900
Massachusetts 1,620 $39,140
Rhode Island 310 $38,850
New York 3,890 $36,850
Alaska 170 $36,450

While some high-paying states, like California, also have many employment opportunities, the states with the most opportunity do not always offer the highest salaries. The states with the most opportunities for vet assistants are as follows:

State Number of Jobs Annual mean wage
United States 98,970 $31,780
California 12,600 $36,350
Florida 6,730 $29,990
Texas 5,060 $28,410
Virginia 4,170 $30,500
North Carolina 4,150 $30,940

When looking at the breakdown of vet assistant salaries geographically, it’s important to consider the cost of living. Generally, states with higher costs of living will offer wages higher than the national average, and those with a lower cost of living will offer wages that fall below national averages.

According to the Missouri Economic Research and Information Center (MERIC 2022), the most affordable states in which to live are Hawaii, Mississippi, Kansas, Alabama, Oklahoma, and Georgia. The most expensive regions in the United States are Hawaii, the District of Columbia, New York, California, and Massachusetts.

Here’s a detailed breakdown of the numbers of vet assistants employed and the expected salary ranges by state.

Vet Assistant Employment & Salary by State

State Vet Assistants employed (May 2021) Annual mean wage Annual 10th percentile wage Annual median wage Annual 90th percentile wage
Alabama 1,400 $26,420 $17,570 $28,080 $34,790
Alaska 170 $36,450 $29,510 $36,460 $45,250
Arizona 2,090 $32,180 $28,040 $29,780 $37,090
Arkansas 1,200 $27,800 $23,130 $28,350 $30,390
California 12,600 $36,350 $29,520 $36,310 $45,460
Colorado 2,040 $32,920 $28,430 $30,400 $37,750
Connecticut 940 $32,480 $27,920 $29,830 $37,730
Delaware 160 $33,040 $23,350 $30,090 $41,580
Florida 6,730 $29,990 $22,880 $28,680 $37,390
Georgia 3,180 $29,500 $22,060 $28,820 $36,770
Hawaii 490 $35,870 $28,170 $36,270 $45,460
Idaho 500 $26,650 $18,050 $27,610 $35,980
Illinois 3,220 $31,690 $22,880 $29,890 $37,710
Indiana 2,150 $28,840 $22,430 $28,900 $36,780
Iowa 840 $32,500 $27,860 $29,440 $46,600
Kansas 970 $27,700 $17,950 $24,120 $38,130
Kentucky 850 $26,270 $18,650 $24,860 $34,510
Louisiana 1,420 $26,420 $17,850 $24,180 $36,700
Maine 820 $40,900 $28,090 $37,410 $59,770
Maryland 2,490 $35,490 $27,470 $36,170 $45,330
Massachusetts 1,620 $39,140 $29,360 $37,360 $49,880
Michigan 3,280 $30,410 $23,550 $29,720 $37,730
Minnesota 1,230 $35,510 $28,010 $35,640 $47,330
Mississippi 480 $25,140 $17,840 $23,260 $36,610
Missouri 1,860 $29,710 $22,720 $29,170 $37,710
Montana 410 $28,930 $23,090 $28,900 $36,540
Nebraska 920 $29,980 $22,720 $29,130 $38,130
Nevada 1,180 $30,230 $23,130 $29,150 $36,440
New Hampshire 480 $31,870 $23,600 $30,120 $38,410
New Jersey 2,150 $33,420 $26,880 $33,340 $42,920
New Mexico 680 $29,130 $22,550 $28,540 $37,500
New York 3,890 $36,850 $28,700 $36,140 $46,540
North Carolina 4,150 $30,940 $22,610 $29,530 $38,650
North Dakota 160 $29,200 $22,920 $28,890 $36,770
Ohio 3,170 $29,420 $22,660 $29,590 $36,920
Oklahoma 1,510 $27,560 $18,810 $28,580 $36,630
Oregon 2,480 $34,580 $28,810 $31,310 $43,960
Pennsylvania 3,470 $30,690 $21,830 $29,620 $39,450
Puerto Rico 500 $18,860 $17,380 $18,260 $19,980
Rhode Island 310 $38,850 $28,950 $36,910 $46,780
South Carolina 1,410 $30,940 $22,820 $30,060 $37,250
South Dakota 180 $29,410 $23,120 $28,520 $37,710
Tennessee 2,970 $28,480 $22,100 $29,160 $36,820
Texas 5,060 $28,410 $21,520 $28,060 $36,670
Utah 740 $27,510 $22,030 $28,340 $36,770
Vermont 190 $31,130 $28,520 $29,220 $37,450
Virginia 4,170 $30,500 $22,690 $29,400 $37,290
Washington 3,460 $35,880 $29,620 $36,580 $44,590
West Virginia 630 $26,160 $18,770 $23,390 $30,370
Wisconsin 2,240 $28,270 $22,150 $28,890 $36,770
Wyoming 150 $30,940 $22,940 $29,620 $37,710
Jocelyn Blore (Chief Content Strategist)

After graduating from UC Berkeley, Jocelyn traveled the world for five years as an English teacher and freelance writer. After stints in England, Japan, and Brazil, she settled in San Francisco and worked as a managing editor for a tech company. When not writing about veterinary technology, nursing, engineering, and other career fields, she satirizes global politics and other absurdities at Blore’s Razor.